I am looking at the trace with 138.943 Bytes (the smaller one of the last 2 traces).
What I can see from that is that the PPPoE Server/BRAS is NOT aware that the session has been brought down. The modem has been reset at frame 528 i guess, where we can see a PADT. We have no LCP Termination request and Termination Ack, probably because the modem is booting at that time. Also that PADT probably never reached the PPPoE Server on the other side.
So while the Firewall/PC is already aware that the session is down and trying to reestablish the PPPoE connection, the BRAS is not, having a zombie pppoe session active. We can see that in frame 588 and 649, because the BRAS is still sending LCP echos for the old session.
So what? The BRAS or intermediate access-switches probably have some DDOS countermeasures configured, which allow only 1 session per mac (or modem or port or whatever), and because the session is still up, flood protection hoped in and the PADR is ignored.
It _should_ be only a matter of time until the BRAS considers the zombie session to be stale, discard that session and let you reestablish the connection.
Did you try to let the Firewall run for 10 - 15 minutes and see if it changed anything?
Are you sure that you fix this by downgrading your FW, or may it be that your provider has changed something on their network the same period you upgraded your FW?
You told us that you have the same problem when terminating the PPPoE connection on the PC. Are you using mpd to establish the connection on your PC?
What we need is a complete trace that includes everything in a larger timespan.
You should put a switch/hub between the firewall and the modem, this way the port on the firewall stays up, and the capture is still running. Also we need at least 10 minutes of connection uptime, only then reset the modem, and let the capture running for another 10 - 15 minutes.
Only that way we can understand the whole context of the Control Session packets.
If you want to remove your own internet traffic from the dump, you can open the capture in wireshark, set the display filter to:
pppoed || (pppoes && ppp.protocol == 0xc021)
and select packet range: Displayed when rewritting the capture to disk in Files/Save as.